Migration as a global phenomenon of society
We consider it necessary to begin this article by defining such a unique process as migration. So, migration is the movement of a person or a group of people from place to place. Usually, before moving from a particular territory, several certain factors are “pushing” elements or, on the contrary, “pulling”. In this article, we will tell you more about the reasons and trends of migration policy.
Why do people migrate?
People migrate for a variety of reasons. These reasons can be divided into economic, social, political, or even environmental:
1.economic migration – moving in search of a new job or to build a career ladder;
- social migration – moving in search of a better quality of life, and also, often, to be closer to your family, relatives or friends;
- political migration – a move aimed primarily at avoiding political persecution or military action;
- ecological migration – the reasons for this type of migration are natural disasters, natural disasters, and abnormal climatic phenomena.
Some people want to emigrate, for example, to expand their career opportunities. However, unfortunately, there is a large stratum of people who are forced to emigrate due to war or total hunger.
Push and pull factors
The so-called push factors are usually called the reasons why people leave the territory of their permanent habitation. Typically, they include:
- lack of a high-quality market for services necessary to fill basic human needs;
- lack of security and law and order in the country, ineffective work of state structures and bodies that should be responsible for legal protection;
- high crime rate and unfavorable crime situation in the country;
- natural factors such as droughts, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, etc.
- revolutions, military coups, uprisings, acts of terrorism, civil and partisan wars, blockades;
- widespread unemployment, poverty, and lack of basic social lifts.
The factors of “attraction” are diametrically opposite reasons why people move to a certain area, region, or state. Typically, they include:
- higher level of employment of the population;
- as a result – a higher level of the material condition of citizens;
- developed sector of the sphere of services of a social and domestic nature;
- favorable climatic conditions;
- high level of legal responsibility and awareness; effective control over law and order and protection of civil rights;
- political and economic stability;
- fertile soil, favorable natural conditions, no risk of natural disasters;
Thus, the desire of people to migrate arises as a result of a combination of these factors, which, in turn, leads to global migration processes.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the migration and mobility of people in the European region, as well as around the world, as countries restricted international, cross-border, and domestic movements to minimize the spread and impact of the pandemic. In 2020, the number of detected irregular border crossings on major migration routes in Europe fell by 85 percent compared to other years, the lowest rate since 2009.
However, taking into account the eternal desire of a person to seek a better life for himself and his family, the search for career opportunities, social and military factors, migration processes will quickly gain the former pace, will develop and spread in the context of modern globalization and urbanization of our planet.